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Parasitism is a type of non mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

Food chain-web

Food Chain and food web

Carbon Cycle – Fossil Fuels

We have to know that the most important point in which humans affect in Carbon Cycle, apart from breathing, is the combustion of any fossil fuels: oil, coal, natural gas…

During this process, combustion, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are released into the atmosphere.

This can be the bigger problem in greenhouse effect which would be the result of global warming.

It is only a possible expectation but, we have to know that each doubling of atmospheric CO2 should produce an increase of 1,5 to 5ºC in the surface of the Earth.

This is a graphic showing us the increasing

of burning fossil fuels in the last 150 years.

We can see in food chains how the ecosystem moves through the ecosystem combining biological and physical elements in the environment. This energy flows through the ecosystem in form of organic elements. All the energy comes from the sun and it is loose in form of heat. This energy can not be recycle.

The scientist estimate that only 10% of energy is passed to first-level. We call this 10% rule.


In the process of photosynthesis, plants need the suns energy, water to make food for themselves in the form of ATP, which is packages of energy. Carbon coming into the plants along with water make those ATP into a bigger molecule, which is know as glucose.
Photosynthesis has an affect on the carbon cycle because it reduces the amount of CO2 in the air and redirects it into sugars which feeds animals as well as humans.

Abiotic factors are the one´s that are not living beings and form the ecosystem.

Some examples of it are:

-the rocks                               -the water                              -the soil

-the light                                 -the sun                                   -the wind

But it can also be the climate and the temperature, because of that biotic factor would have to adaptate this factors.


An ecosystem is a biological system in a particular are in which living and non-living live and interact between them.
For example a sea can be an ecosystem.

In an ecosystem, there are some factors that can modify it. They can be living (also called biocenosis, some examples are animals, bacteria, fungi…) or non-living factors (also called biotope, some examples are wind, compounds, sunlight…).


Population refers to the group of species that live in the same place and can interbreed and then produce fertile offspring, and community refers to the group of organisms that live in the same area that can be of different species and can’t produce fertile offspring.



In ecology, commensalism is a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is neutral (there is no harm or benefit). There are two other types of association: mutualism (where both organisms benefit) and parasitism (one organism benefits and the other one is harmed).


Eutrophication is a process in which bodies of water receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive growth of algae. The two most common nutrients that initiate eutrophication are nitrogen and phosphorous, two limiting nutrients in the growth of algae. These two nutrients are usually introduced to the body of water through fertilizer run-off.


Acid Rain

Acid rain is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel combustion.



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